Other published studies during this period primarily dealt with the institutional aspect of marketing in other countries and made very little reference, if any, to consumers for example see BeattieSchneiderand Waterhouse The intention here is not to detail these measures, but a brief overview of the measurement approaches that have been utilized provides the necessary background.
Consumer differences were studied from a variety of perspectives using numerous concepts and theories. But, in a comprehensive review of the literature, Midgley and Dowling found that, by and large, consumer researchers have relied on two main approaches to measure innovativeness, namely, the longitudinal and cross-sectional.
The longitudinal approach is based on a variant of the "relative time of Consumer behavior across cultures. This may be due to the fact that both novelty seeking and variety seeking have been the subject of conceptual and empirical studies only in recent years and that a unified and integrative framework to organize these constructs does not exist Hoyer and Ridgway Cross-cultural studies of the s have included: Viewed this way, modernization refers to a process, whereas "modernity" is the mentality, the state of mind individual members of the society acquire as the process of modernization gets underway.
The rationale for novelty seeking stems from a desire for self-preservation in an unknown world Hirschman Some well-known measures of modernity Inkeles and SmithKahl have been constructed using a unidimensional approach. The extensive literature in psychology leaves no doubt that individuals are different in terms of novelty seeking behavior due to certain psychological traits possessed to a greater or lesser extent by the individual members of the society.
The patterns shown in quadrant two and three, however, are inconsistent with the theoretical assumption, but can be explained. The Boston Conference on distribution placed heavy emphasis on papers dealing with foreign marketing and the June, conference of the American Marketing Association had a strong international flavor Buell Therefore, it is important, at the outset, to make a distinction between the two terms.
A review of the literature by Rogers reveals that innovativeness as a construct is particularly relevant for cross-cultural investigations. Some authors have adopted a culture-specific perspective in the construction of their scales, meaning that various items in the scale are developed from "local material" which are salient to the population under study.
In reality, however, there may be a slight difference between the two. Therefore, one may wonder whether these hypothetical constructs refer to the same unobservable property of objective reality or each represent a different domain.
Furthermore the literature in psychology reveals that novelty seeking is related to dogmatism close windednessdemocratic orientation liberalism and ability to deal with complex situation Hoyer and Ridgway Toward the end of the s, articles dealing with cultural differences began to appear in marketing journals.
Volume 6, Ann Arbor, MI: Both individual modernity and innovativeness are thought to be determined and influenced by sociological factors such as educational attainment, urbanization, occupational status and so on Rogers and ShoemakerInkeles and Smith Another way of comparing the four constructs is to consider the manner of conceptualization and the measurement approach inherent in the preceding discussion.
He found that both Japanese and Americans had a desire for variety regarding dinner entrees and musical selection but opted for consistency regarding the toothpaste brand used. From the literature, we would expect those individuals with high modernity scores to be highly innovative and vice versa.
Given the considerable amount of overlap among the four constructs, it is highly desirable to examine the interrelationship among the same as a first step in developing a theoretical framework.
In this approach, items are selected from the existing literature and the direction of modernity is determined by what modernity theory considers modern.
The above discussion is summarized in Figure 3. The second aspect relates to the cultural orientation that has guided the process of scale construction.
From an operational point of view, this means that the items in the scale of measurement are assumed to be intercorrelated and, hence, they form a general value syndrome of modernism. These authors believe that individuals who are affected by the process of modernization are more likely to change some patterns and commitments, but not others.
Association for Consumer Research. During the s, the number of cross-cultural analytical studies increased dramatically. Despite the incompleteness of the list of studies reported here, the variety of topics examined to assess cross-cultural differences is impressive.
For example, a typical scale may include questions such as "How willing are you to try new foods? In contrast, some authors have adopted a multidimensional view Dawson ; Portes ; Schnaiberg The interrelationship-among individual modernity, innovativeness, novelty seeking, variety seeking have not been postulated.
For the purpose of this paper, we treat novelty seeking and variety seeking as two separate but interrelated constructs. Furthermore, the direction of modernity is also determined by what local people consider modern. Generally speaking, two aspects of the measurement approach stand out distinguishing various scales of individual modernity.
The relationship among these constructs are explored and several conceptual issues for future research are cited.
She distinguishes two aspects of novelty seeking. This technique focuses on determining how many items are purchased within a consumption category rather than time of adoption Robertson Culture is the fundamental determinant of a person's wants and behavior.
Research shows that culture, sub-culture, and social classes are particularly important on consumer buying behavior. Cultures differ in demographics, language, non-verbal communication, and values. Due to these differences, consumer behavior changed dramatically across.
an approach to studying (or marketing to) cultures that stresses commonalities across cultures expectancy theory the perspective that behavior is largely "pulled" by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes, or positive incentives, rather than.
Request PDF on ResearchGate | Homeostasis and consumer behavior across cultures | The focus of this paper is the process of homeostasis by which the body seeks to regulate its internal environment. The focus of this paper is the process of homeostasis by which the body seeks to regulate its internal environment.
In particular, we present a global model for a set of consumer behaviors that may vary across cultures as a direct response to the intensity and duration of sunlight and experienced temperature.
Chapter 2 Consumer Behavior. STUDY. PLAY.
so marketers must adapt not only across but within cultures. C. The United States is comprised of a culture that accepts a wide array of personal behaviors and attitudes, foods, dress, and other products and services.
Thus, the United States values _____. CROSS-CULTURALISSUES IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR National cultures that celebrate the values ofindependence, as in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Denmark, are typically categorized as individu.Download